Social Customer Relationship Management Capabilities in Sports Facilities

Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant Professor of Sport Management, Department of Sport Management, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

2 Ph.D. Student, Department of Physical Education and Sport, Institute of Health Science, Sivas Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Türkiye.

3 Ph.D. Student, Department of Sport Management, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.


Nowadays, the prominent role of the customer in the global arena reveals the urgent need for proper management of customer relationships. This has led to a new shape of CRM known as Social CRM. This study analyzes data from 384 customers of sports facilities in the East Azerbaijan province of Iran using the structural equation model (SEM) approach. The findings revealed that the SEM used is a strong theoretical model for social CRM capabilities, customer-oriented management system (COMS), and social media technology use (SMTU). Moreover, the social CRM capabilities have a significant impact on customer relationship performance. From an academic perspective, this study helps to understand the experiences of customers of sports facilities during their interaction on social media and focuses on long-term customer relationships. From a sports management perspective, sports facilities should use the insights created through social CRM capabilities to guide effective sports marketing strategies toward customer relationship performance.


Main Subjects

Abdavi, F., & Pashaie, S. (2019). Customer relationship management in sports (Vol. 1). Tbriz, Iran: Tanin Danesh.
Abdoli, M., Karim Khani, M., Mohammadi Darvishvand, R., & Sepas Moghadam, B. (2015). The effect of customer-centric management system on customer communication performance with the mediating role of social CRM capabilities. Paper presented at the Second National Conference on Marketing Research, Tehran, Iran. https: / /
Agnihotri, R., Trainor, K. J., Itani, O. S., & Rodriguez, M. (2017). Examining the role of sales-based CRM technology and social media use on post-sale service behaviors in India. Journal of business research, 81, 144-154.
Akhavan KHarazian, M., & Rikhtehgaran, B. (2015). A Review of the Barriers to the Use of Social Media Technologies in the Field of Social Customer Relationship Management and Leisure Travel Services. TOURISM MANAGEMENT, 10(29).
Ali, A., Bahadur, W., Wang, N., Luqman, A., & Khan, A. N. (2020). Improving team innovation performance: role of social media and team knowledge management capabilities. Technology in Society, 61, 101259.
Alter, S. (2007). Customer-centric systems: A multi-dimensional view. Paper presented at the Proceedings of WeB 2007, Sixth Workshop on eBusiness.
Aqili, S. V., & Ghasemzadeh Araqi, M. (2016). Social media; the nature, functions and challenges. Journal of Iranian Social Development Studies, 8(1), 21-36.
Baashar, Y., Alhussian, H., Patel, A., Alkawsi, G., Alzahrani, A. I., Alfarraj, O., & Hayder, G. (2020). Customer relationship management systems (CRMS) in the healthcare environment: A systematic literature review. Computer Standards & Interfaces, 71, 103442.
Bhatti, M. A., Farhan, M., Ahmad, M. J., & Sharif, M. N. (2019). The impact of social CRM capabilities and customer engagement on the firm performance: mediating role of social media usage. Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 7(3), 313-324.
Brown, S. A. (2012). Seeing Web 2.0 in context: A study of academic perceptions. The Internet and Higher Education, 15(1), 50-57.
Chang, W., Park, J. E., & Chaiy, S. (2010). How does CRM technology transform into organizational performance? A mediating role of marketing capability. Journal of business research, 63(8), 849-855.
Chen, J.-S., & Tsou, H.-T. (2012). Performance effects of IT capability, service process innovation, and the mediating role of customer service. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 29(1), 71-94.
Choudhury, M. M., & Harrigan, P. (2014). CRM to social CRM: the integration of new technologies into customer relationship management. Journal of strategic marketing, 22(2), 149-176.
Chugh, R., & Ruhi, U. (2018). Social media in higher education: A literature review of Facebook. Education and Information Technologies, 23(2), 605-616.
Comrey, A. L., & Lee, H. B. (1992). A first course in factor analysis, 2nd edn. hillsdale, nj: L: Erlbaum Associates.
Dermentzi, E., Papagiannidis, S., Toro, C. O., & Yannopoulou, N. (2016). Academic engagement: Differences between intention to adopt social networking sites and other online technologies. Computers in human behavior, 61, 321-332.
El Mehelmi, H., & Sadek, H. (2019). Investigating the usage of social customer relationship management (SCRM) and its impact on firm performance in the mobile telecommunication services: Egypt case. Journal of Business and Retail Management Research, 13(03).
Ernst, H., Hoyer, W. D., Krafft, M., & Krieger, K. (2011). Customer relationship management and company performance—the mediating role of new product performance. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 39(2), 290-306.
Foltean, F. S., Trif, S. M., & Tuleu, D. L. (2019). Customer relationship management capabilities and social media technology use: Consequences on firm performance. Journal of business research, 104, 563-575.
Goldsmith, R. E., & Foxall, G. R. (2003). The measurement of innovativeness. The international handbook on innovation, 321, 330.
Guha, S., Harrigan, P., & Soutar, G. (2018). Linking social media to customer relationship management (CRM): A qualitative study on SMEs. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 30(3), 193-214.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Canonical correlation: A supplement to multivariate data analysis. Multivariate Data Analysis: A Global Perspective, 7th ed.; Pearson Prentice Hall Publishing: Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA.
Hakimi, F., & Ebrahimi, A. (2020). A Study of CRM Customer Relationship Management Strategies in Attracting and Retaining Customers in Sports Venues in Tehran. Paper presented at the Fifth National Conference on Applied Research in Physical Education, Sports and Championship Sciences, Tehran, Iran. https: // civilica .com / doc / 1224550.
Harrigan, P., Miles, M. P., Fang, Y., & Roy, S. K. (2020). The role of social media in the engagement and information processes of social CRM. International Journal of Information Management, 54, 102151.
Hosseini, M. H., & Nematpour, S. A. (2015). Using Social Media Technology and Customer Relationship Performance: A Case Study of Kaleh Company. Paper presented at the International Conference on New Research Achievements in Economic Accounting Management, Tehran. / 406878
Jafari, S. M., & Yaghobi Jahromi, Z. (2019). The Influence of Social Customer Relationship Management (SCRM) on Customer Relationship Performance. Journal of Business Administration Researches, 10(20), 115-134.
Jayachandran, S., Sharma, S., Kaufman, P., & Raman, P. (2005). The role of relational information processes and technology use in customer relationship management. Journal of marketing, 69(4), 177-192.
Kamboj, S., Yadav, M., & Rahman, Z. (2018). Impact of social media and customer-centric technology on performance outcomes: the mediating role of social CRM capabilities. International Journal of Electronic Marketing and Retailing, 9(2), 109-125.
Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business horizons, 53(1), 59-68.
Kim, M., Park, J. E., Dubinsky, A. J., & Chaiy, S. (2012). Frequency of CRM implementation activities: a customer‐centric view. Journal of Services Marketing.
Kotler, P. (1994). Marketing management: Analysis, Planning, Implementation, and Control, Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: Prencite Hall International: Inc.
Lamrhari, S., El Ghazi, H., Oubrich, M., & El Faker, A. (2022). A social CRM analytic framework for improving customer retention, acquisition, and conversion. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 174, 121275.
Lim, N., Grönlund, Å., & Andersson, A. (2015). Cloud computing: The beliefs and perceptions of Swedish school principals. Computers & Education, 84, 90-100.
Lorenz, M. P., Ramsey, J. R., & Franke, G. R. (2020). The dark side of cultural intelligence: Exploring its impact on opportunism, ethical relativism, and customer relationship performance. Business Ethics Quarterly, 30(4), 552-590.
Mithas, S., Ramasubbu, N., & Sambamurthy, V. (2011). How information management capability influences firm performance. MIS quarterly, 237-256.
Moharramzadeh, M., Pashaie, S., & Hoseyni, M. D. (2019). The effect of customer relationship management on satisfaction and loyalty of customers referring to sports places. Communication Management in Sport Media, 6(4), 67-76.
Ngo, V. M., Phan, Q. P. T., & Vu, H. M. (2021). Implementing Social Customer Relationship Management in Turbulent Environments: A Dynamic Capabilities Perspective. Webology, 18(Special issue on Management and Social Media), 49-70.
Olayah, F. (2019). Integration of social media platform in their Customer Relationship Management Process (CRMP) and its impact on performance of SMEs. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 12, 47.
Oltra-Badenes, R., Gil-Gomez, H., Guerola-Navarro, V., & Vicedo, P. (2019). Is it possible to manage the product recovery processes in an ERP? Analysis of functional needs. Sustainability, 11(16), 4380.
Parvatiyar, A., & Sheth, J. N. (2001). Relationship Management. Customer relationship management: Emerging concepts, tools, and applications, 1.
Pashaie, S., Abdavi, F., Badriazarin, Y., Cincimino, S., & Fişne, M. (2020). The Model of Creation of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Technology in Sports Services Section. Journal of advanced sport technology, 4(2), 38-48.
Pashaie, S., Abdavi, F., BadriAzrine, Y., Cincimino, S., & Fişne, M. (2021). Designing and providing the appropriate structural model for success of customer relationship management in the sports service sector places in Iran: Multi-Method Analysis. Applied Research in Sport Management, 9(3), 41-56.
Pashaie, S., Piątkowska, M., Hoseini, M. D., Dostimehr, A., & Jahanbakhsh, I. (2022). Sociological Analysis of Branding of Professional Football League Players. Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research, 96(1), 1-11.
Payne, A. F., Storbacka, K., & Frow, P. (2008). Managing the co-creation of value. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 36(1), 83-96.
Rabiheh, S., & Rezaian, A. (2022). The Effect of Social Customer Relationship Management on Financial Performance with the Mediating Role of Customer Commitment and Customer Satisfaction (Case Study of a Private Bank in Khuzestan Province). Jounal of Marketing Management, 17(55), 95-109.
Raman, P., & Pashupati, K. (2004). Is CRM really doomed to fail? An exploratory study of the barriers to CRM implementation. Journal of Customer Behaviour, 3(1), 5-26.
Reimann, M., Schilke, O., & Thomas, J. S. (2010). Customer relationship management and firm performance: the mediating role of business strategy. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 38(3), 326-346.
Reinartz, W., Krafft, M., & Hoyer, W. D. (2004). The customer relationship management process: Its measurement and impact on performance. Journal of marketing research, 41(3), 293-305.
Reinhold, O., & Alt, R. (2011). Analytical social CRM: concept and tool support.
Ryals, L., & Payne, A. (2001). Customer relationship management in financial services: towards information-enabled relationship marketing. Journal of strategic marketing, 9(1), 3-27.
Trainor, K. J. (2012). Relating social media technologies to performance: A capabilities-based perspective. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 32(3), 317-331.
Trainor, K. J., Andzulis, J. M., Rapp, A., & Agnihotri, R. (2014). Social media technology usage and customer relationship performance: A capabilities-based examination of social CRM. Journal of business research, 67(6), 1201-1208.
Valizadeh Oghani, A., & Rahimzadeh, N. (2021). Use of social media technology and its relationship with company performance with the mediating role of strategic customer relationship management capabilities. Journal of Operations Management, 1(3), 37-68.
Verhoef, P. C. (2003). Understanding the effect of customer relationship management efforts on customer retention and customer share development. Journal of marketing, 67(4), 30-45. doi:10.1509/jmkg.
Vicedo, P., Gil-Gomez, H., Oltra-Badenes, R., & Guerola-Navarro, V. (2020). A bibliometric overview of how critical success factors influence on enterprise resource planning implementations. Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems, 38(5), 5475-5487.
Wang, Z., & Kim, H. G. (2017). Can social media marketing improve customer relationship capabilities and firm performance? Dynamic capability perspective. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 39, 15-26.